Political freedom is the resultant of unresolved conflicts among various sections of the elite. James Burnham, The Machiavellians

The circulation of elites, a phrase coined by Vilfredo Pareto, and amplified in the mid-20th century by James Burnham, can be as much prescription as description. It is political realism that identifies the historical spaces in which broader human freedom becomes possible.

Toward better understanding of the circulation of elites, and its importance, this Substack is dedicated to exploring the intersection of biopolitics, ponerology, and the Italian school of political realism.

The posts will vary from rigorous scholarly papers, to magazine-style articles, to quick hit memes. It is published intermittently, when the author’s research has generated something worth saying on the topic.

Join up if you’d like to learn more about these underdiscussed topics and keep up to date with my more resent thoughts on them.